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  • pgs070947 commented on Thingking's instructable Water Saving Toilet-Mounted Basin5 days ago
    Water Saving Toilet-Mounted Basin

    For second cistern, read second large header tank in the loft area.It's all part of a much larger rainwater collection system which has evolved over the years and includes a sand filter at the roof downpipe end.To keep the water sterile, I add a dash of sodium hypochlorite (domestic bleach).I'm not sure that I would really want to use it for teeth brushing, but for everything else, it's fine. A lot depends on roof construction and concrete tiles in particular collect a lot of rubbish. In well over ten years use, I have never had a health issue that could be related. As an ex-water scientist, I have no issues with the water as used. My potable water consumption has shrunk from the national average of 150-litres per day to below 10-litres. It's a win-win system and has much more signific...

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    For second cistern, read second large header tank in the loft area.It's all part of a much larger rainwater collection system which has evolved over the years and includes a sand filter at the roof downpipe end.To keep the water sterile, I add a dash of sodium hypochlorite (domestic bleach).I'm not sure that I would really want to use it for teeth brushing, but for everything else, it's fine. A lot depends on roof construction and concrete tiles in particular collect a lot of rubbish. In well over ten years use, I have never had a health issue that could be related. As an ex-water scientist, I have no issues with the water as used. My potable water consumption has shrunk from the national average of 150-litres per day to below 10-litres. It's a win-win system and has much more significant benefits to the whole water supply and waste disposal industry that it is too long to list here. What it does do is turn rainy days into raw material collection days

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  • pgs070947 commented on Thingking's instructable Water Saving Toilet-Mounted Basin6 days ago
    Water Saving Toilet-Mounted Basin

    Better still, just use a bucket of rainwater.Main advantage is that it's soft water, so no descaling chemicals if you live in a hard water area.I have sized it up a bit to cover a lot of other things, but so far, used about 40-tonnes (40000-litres) of rainwater. Bills cut to absolute minimum. Makes all sorts of washing a pleasure.Have to agree with comment that it makes no sense to flush waste away with drinking water - takes a he amount of effort to produce, then rendered useless in the WC.

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  • pgs070947 commented on JON-A-TRON's instructable Thread ID Tool9 days ago
    Thread ID Tool

    Just the ticket for sorting all those tins of unknown nuts and screws and washers that used to be sorted until the jobs came along.Like the others have said, there are several pitches for most diameters and it gets worse the larger the screw diameter. I'm no expert, but they seem to kick in for diameters above M5 or M6 and I have just bought some metric taps for M7 0.75 and M8 0.75. A lot of panel mounted electronic components use these finer pitches. For plastic enclosures with walls thicker than the component available thread, tapping the wall is the easiest option

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  • pgs070947 commented on NicK_RSA's instructable Watersaving: Shower Mixer Alternative10 days ago
    Watersaving: Shower Mixer Alternative

    Very true. Washing 250-ml of urine with 5-10 litres of potable water makes no sense whatsoever. For the less squeamish, a couple of day's worth of poo doesn't matter either. A far better solution is to use the urine on the compost heap and adopt dry composting lavvies. The key to all this is make use of all the natural sources like rainwater, restrict tap or potable water to what the name suggests and be creative. I even collect the condensate water from the gas condensing boiler and whole body washing daily is a thing of the past.

    The author is using a quarter turn ball valve. The valve can be operated by a screwdriver, a thumb-turn or short lever as used and for you, a long lever version would be the best option. The long lever can be 100-mm long and colour-coded.There is a problem with quarter turn valves that relates to construction, water quality and usage.Cheap valves use cheap materials like poor seals and stuff like plated brass balls. For long term use, get a decent branded valve with a stainless steel ball. Cheap valves corrode in aggressive water and leak. They also tend to seize up, hence the usage bit.Another bit of advice, valves come in normal bore or full bore. If it's a low pressure system, get a full bore valve.There are other more expensive options like solenoid valves that can be electronicall...

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    The author is using a quarter turn ball valve. The valve can be operated by a screwdriver, a thumb-turn or short lever as used and for you, a long lever version would be the best option. The long lever can be 100-mm long and colour-coded.There is a problem with quarter turn valves that relates to construction, water quality and usage.Cheap valves use cheap materials like poor seals and stuff like plated brass balls. For long term use, get a decent branded valve with a stainless steel ball. Cheap valves corrode in aggressive water and leak. They also tend to seize up, hence the usage bit.Another bit of advice, valves come in normal bore or full bore. If it's a low pressure system, get a full bore valve.There are other more expensive options like solenoid valves that can be electronically timed and would need no user intervention.

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  • pgs070947 commented on NicK_RSA's instructable Watersaving: Shower Mixer Alternative11 days ago
    Watersaving: Shower Mixer Alternative

    A plumbing tip. If you turn your spool of PTFE tap over and wind the tape clockwise round the thread, it will keep taut while you're doing it. I'm guessing that the yellow spool is the thicker gas grade tape which I find is the best for most threads. Another thing you can do, is run the edge of a file across the threads to create a bit of roughness to stop the tape unwinding - doesn't affect the seal and many commercial threads (Danfoss for example) come already serrated.On droughts generaaly, one of the problems is using potable water for tasks that don't need highly purified water, like flushing the lavvy - rain water (collect as much as you can) or "grey" water is all that's needed and if you're not squeamish, you really don't need to flush it every time.The only potable wa...

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    A plumbing tip. If you turn your spool of PTFE tap over and wind the tape clockwise round the thread, it will keep taut while you're doing it. I'm guessing that the yellow spool is the thicker gas grade tape which I find is the best for most threads. Another thing you can do, is run the edge of a file across the threads to create a bit of roughness to stop the tape unwinding - doesn't affect the seal and many commercial threads (Danfoss for example) come already serrated.On droughts generaaly, one of the problems is using potable water for tasks that don't need highly purified water, like flushing the lavvy - rain water (collect as much as you can) or "grey" water is all that's needed and if you're not squeamish, you really don't need to flush it every time.The only potable water I use now is for drinking and food preparation - everything else is either reused or from water butts.

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  • pgs070947 commented on netzener's instructable One Tube AM Radio13 days ago
    One Tube AM Radio

    Very nice project, nicely put together and explained.Takes you back to the basics of tube amplification, tuned circuits etc., way before digital synthesis and so on.The 50's and early 60's were a golden time for the original projects like this with boy's papers full of one valve short wave radio kits and in the UK at least, stores like Henry's Radio in London. Plus the added bonus of all that war surplus radio kit.The other thing it shows you is how limited, maybe for the better, the home entertainment was. What was thrilling was putting that first crystal set together and stringing yards of cable out of the bedroom window, but never really understanding how it all worked.I'm having a bit of a radio revisit now and trying to put together a 60-kHz receiver ror time signals. Thanks to th...

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    Very nice project, nicely put together and explained.Takes you back to the basics of tube amplification, tuned circuits etc., way before digital synthesis and so on.The 50's and early 60's were a golden time for the original projects like this with boy's papers full of one valve short wave radio kits and in the UK at least, stores like Henry's Radio in London. Plus the added bonus of all that war surplus radio kit.The other thing it shows you is how limited, maybe for the better, the home entertainment was. What was thrilling was putting that first crystal set together and stringing yards of cable out of the bedroom window, but never really understanding how it all worked.I'm having a bit of a radio revisit now and trying to put together a 60-kHz receiver ror time signals. Thanks to the resourceful Chinese, I recently got hold of some germanium diodes, so a crystal set might be reborn.Well done

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  • pgs070947 commented on makendo's instructable DIY Laminate Countertops18 days ago
    DIY Laminate Countertops

    Finished job looks nice - who needs kitchen fitters?

    This is how worktops used to be done with Formica and EvoStick - Formica is still going strong and the original stuff was far tougher than the newer post formed stuff.A couple of tips - a laminate trimmer is fine provided the ball race runs smoothly. If it doesn't, it will put a nice line all along the edge of your surface which you won't want.I used to use router to square of a commercial worktop to stop splintering, but having seen the results from a decent circular saw with a new fine tooth carbide blade fitted. Cut from the "wrong" side and the finish is absolutely perfect, couldn't believe just how good. It's worth getting a new blade just for one job. For thinner laminate, cutting the over-hanging laminate with a sanding block with carbide paper at a 45-degree angle work...

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    This is how worktops used to be done with Formica and EvoStick - Formica is still going strong and the original stuff was far tougher than the newer post formed stuff.A couple of tips - a laminate trimmer is fine provided the ball race runs smoothly. If it doesn't, it will put a nice line all along the edge of your surface which you won't want.I used to use router to square of a commercial worktop to stop splintering, but having seen the results from a decent circular saw with a new fine tooth carbide blade fitted. Cut from the "wrong" side and the finish is absolutely perfect, couldn't believe just how good. It's worth getting a new blade just for one job. For thinner laminate, cutting the over-hanging laminate with a sanding block with carbide paper at a 45-degree angle works well - with the laminate trimmer, one mistake can be costly.

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  • pgs070947 commented on Mikhandmaker.'s instructable Homemade Lathe for Drill Press23 days ago
    Homemade Lathe for Drill Press

    A bit too ambitious.. A bowl would need a huge amount of torque and a drill angle drive isn't going to be up to it. Full size bowl turning lathes are massively built. I'd give less than 30-seconds before the bowl becomes a flying saucer. Bevel gears or cable drives aren't the most efficient at the best of times. One snag on a tool and there's going to be a lot of grief. Having said that, it's still a nice example of lateral thinking.

    When I read the title, I had visions of the drill press lying on it's side, but the right angled drive solves that.Just a word of warning though, if a right angle drive decides to come loose anytime, the results can be scary - treat with respect. I would also watch the running time as some of these drill accessory drives aren't built to last.

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  • pgs070947 commented on Nematic!'s instructable How to Fix Fried Arduino Nano/Uno/Mega4 weeks ago
    How to Fix Fried Arduino Nano/Uno/Mega

    Yes, you're right. The spec is hold at 500-mA, but as Bourns describe as "trip" at 1000-mA. The point is there is no need to replace unless you whack 100-A through the Uno. It's probably a bit more sophisticated than a PTC resistor, with a defined "knee". A cursory look at the schematic suggests that it only protects the USB supply, by which time you've probably crashed the PC.

    Isn't the fuse on the Uno at least, resettable?Datasheet gives it as good to 100-A, trip at 1-A typical. Normally, just letting it cool is enough.In my experience, the diode is the most likely component to burn out. Beware confusing Vin and 5-V out if connecting a supply other than though the 2.1-mm socket

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  • pgs070947 commented on mikeasaurus's instructable 5 Ways to Remove a Stripped Screw6 weeks ago
    5 Ways to Remove a Stripped Screw

    I suppose don't strip it in the first place is number one, but we all do it. And using decent screws and a pilot hole in tough woods saves some grief.Getting the right screwdriver helps - Philips isn't Pozidrive etc. and size does count as well - Pozi #0, #1 etc..Size 1 fits less than 3.5-mm (woodscrews), size 2 fits 3.5 to 5-mm, size 3 fits 6-mm etc.Declag the recess and tap the screwdriver into the recess.Tighten first, then see if it shifts.There used to be a useful compound called Hexagrip, RS used to do it.It's just a mixture of grease and silicon carbide grit, the same as lapping grit. might get you just enough extra bite. Diamond coated screwdriver bits can helpSide cutters can get a grip on the head sometimes, or Moles will either get it out or leave it in two halves

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  • pgs070947 commented on bryans workshop's instructable Built-in Kitchen Shelves! 7 weeks ago
    Built-in Kitchen Shelves!

    If your drywall is fixed with nails or screws, just use one of the super strong magnets to locate them. I pull out most of my nails and replace with screws to stop the inevitable "popping".A nice use of wasted space. The only reservations I might have is anything to do with possible fire breaks and any acoustic/insulation problems. The fire break issue could be solved by using a second backing of drywall board or one of the cement fibre backing boards.3" of Rockwool really doesn't add much acoustic attenuation.With care, you could use structural walls, as in the UK, the only real difference between load bearing and non load bearing is that one uses nominal 3" CLS and the other nominal 4". Sometimes you will find additional uprights at door and window openings, b...

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    If your drywall is fixed with nails or screws, just use one of the super strong magnets to locate them. I pull out most of my nails and replace with screws to stop the inevitable "popping".A nice use of wasted space. The only reservations I might have is anything to do with possible fire breaks and any acoustic/insulation problems. The fire break issue could be solved by using a second backing of drywall board or one of the cement fibre backing boards.3" of Rockwool really doesn't add much acoustic attenuation.With care, you could use structural walls, as in the UK, the only real difference between load bearing and non load bearing is that one uses nominal 3" CLS and the other nominal 4". Sometimes you will find additional uprights at door and window openings, but other than that, there is very little difference. When I say with care, I mean remove one upright at a time, but your shelving or whatever frame if using decent structural timber and solidly built, would be just as good. as the original studs and noggins. After all, "pocket" doors are used in structural walls. As an additional measure, I might look at some protection for the exposed timber like an intumescent paint.Nice project

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  • pgs070947 commented on AroundHome's instructable Three Clamps Racks From Scraps8 weeks ago
    Three Clamps Racks From Scraps

    Thank you for that - true gritMy forebears were all men of the soil, never complained, suffered badly in WW1 and WW2, and worst of all, were never recognised for their efforts.My generation, the so-called baby-boomers, get the blame for everything, for living in houses, being in hospital beds, getting a pension and so on, all at the hands of generations who have no idea and can't survive without a mobile phone. They walk past you like you are mess on the pavement or simply not there.You should be proud of all the things you achieved and long may you continue

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  • Benches and Tables Built As Stressed Skin Panels

    I'm sorry to hear that you are being ripped off, but maybe you should ask Dow Corning why a cartridge of adhesive that retails at less than £10 (and that's pricey) in the UK and so much in the States - after all Dow was originally a US company. The Sika brand is even cheaper at £6 a cartridge.I would suggest you do a bit more shopping around instead of relying on Amazon. Or maybe ask Mr Trump what he can do about it.

    EPS is hydrophobic so any water-based adhesive is going to struggle.Having said that, a prime with PVA, well scrubbed in, will take a solvent-free adhesive like Gripfill Solvent Free.One adhesive that seems to work on just about anything is (in UK at least) is one by Geocel/Dow Corning called "The Works" or Sika Sikaflex EBTI haven't found anything that this doesn't stick, works under water and I've used it for a whole string of things, including:-Bonding work surfaces together (Mason's mitre joint)Fixing PVC cladding to exterior woodworkRepairing a live water leak on a tank by mixing it with glass fibre matFixing rigid PUR insulation panelsFixing fittings in shower cubicles (no tile drilling)If you use it on wood joints, the wood will break before the adhesive, and of course,...

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    EPS is hydrophobic so any water-based adhesive is going to struggle.Having said that, a prime with PVA, well scrubbed in, will take a solvent-free adhesive like Gripfill Solvent Free.One adhesive that seems to work on just about anything is (in UK at least) is one by Geocel/Dow Corning called "The Works" or Sika Sikaflex EBTI haven't found anything that this doesn't stick, works under water and I've used it for a whole string of things, including:-Bonding work surfaces together (Mason's mitre joint)Fixing PVC cladding to exterior woodworkRepairing a live water leak on a tank by mixing it with glass fibre matFixing rigid PUR insulation panelsFixing fittings in shower cubicles (no tile drilling)If you use it on wood joints, the wood will break before the adhesive, and of course, totally waterproof.

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  • pgs070947 commented on AroundHome's instructable Three Clamps Racks From Scraps8 weeks ago
    Three Clamps Racks From Scraps

    Lovetra, you would have a field day here and get very, very rich at the same time. My problem is having about a hundred projects on the go all the time and every one is important. The goal is always to plan, get materials, start, and then move onto the next project - that's the problem. Never quite finish the one before. Having worked my way through the whole house, kitchen, bathroom, loft, shed, garden, the whole thing is a dog's dinner. Scattered amongst all this are the tools. Add to this, a hobby (electronics) that involves millions of minute components and you have the perfect storm. About half of my life has been spent looking for things. The air is permanently blue. I have three of everything because I have to go and buy another one.I have tried every trick in the book, but can n...

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    Lovetra, you would have a field day here and get very, very rich at the same time. My problem is having about a hundred projects on the go all the time and every one is important. The goal is always to plan, get materials, start, and then move onto the next project - that's the problem. Never quite finish the one before. Having worked my way through the whole house, kitchen, bathroom, loft, shed, garden, the whole thing is a dog's dinner. Scattered amongst all this are the tools. Add to this, a hobby (electronics) that involves millions of minute components and you have the perfect storm. About half of my life has been spent looking for things. The air is permanently blue. I have three of everything because I have to go and buy another one.I have tried every trick in the book, but can never break the habit. Extend this to keys, credit cards, very important documents etc.If I could afford it, I would put a GPS tracker on everything, but then I would lose the phone. Everyone including lady friend is banned from entering. What I really need is a big shed with bedroom etc. attached. Why do I put myself through all this? Because I come from a long line of grafters and doers who could never afford to get someone in to do it - it's in the genes. It’s the difference between the Brits and USA. Here in the UK, whole new generations have never experienced a hardship like WW2. Get someone in, get the groceries delivered, get it online. If someone put me in a small, neat, tidy one bedroom flat, I would dieGood luck to you and keep on DOING

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  • pgs070947 commented on AroundHome's instructable Three Clamps Racks From Scraps2 months ago
    Three Clamps Racks From Scraps

    Many variations on this possible - slots for files and chisels, narrow slots for stripping knives, holes of all sizes for screwdrivers etc. etc.If only I could remember to put them back after use

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  • pgs070947 commented on ee_eng's instructable Make a Good Dupont Pin-Crimp EVERY TIME!2 months ago
    Make a Good Dupont Pin-Crimp EVERY TIME!

    If it's a genuine SN-28B crimper, you will need a small mortgage to buy one.Really suspiciously cheap crimpers aren't worth buying, but there are some decent mid-quality crimpers that work really well.I bought one of these for the smaller Molex 0.1" pitch friction lock female headers and can't fault it. Japanese, decent quality with a choice of crimp sizes.https://www.amazon.co.uk/Universal-Micro-Crimping-Crimppins-Engineer/dp/B002AVVO7K/ref=pd_lpo_vtph_147_tr_t_2?_encoding=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=75A3K44F74HE2NVC6WKYI don't know how these connector companies can justify charging 3-figure sums for a crimper, but if your firm is buying it, so what

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  • How to Make a Touch Switch Using One Mosfet

    Have to agree with Joe Strout, but nice demo all the same.You can do pretty much the the same with a BJT or a CMOS gate (CMOS gate would be better with very high input impedance)A "true" one finger touch switch relies on capacitance or induced mains hum.I think some of the Atmel MCUs have a touch facility

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  • pgs070947 commented on Im_int's instructable IoT Water Alarm2 months ago
    IoT Water Alarm

    I like itWater leaks can do a huge amount of damage and sometimes the first indication you get is the ominous dark stain on the ceiling. If it happens while you're away for a few weeks, your ceiling can be on the floor when you get backThere are plenty of out of the way places for water leaks to go undetected and a few of these dotted around can save you a fortune in repair bills. Sometimes water damage can be worse than fire.For sensors, I add some compressed foam, the sort you get as soldering iron replacement pads as they swell up when wet. The probes can sit on the foam, weighted down. If it's something like a rough concrete floor, the foam will take up any unevenness and just a small part needs to get damp to sense.You could extend it to turn off the water with a solenoid valve on ...

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    I like itWater leaks can do a huge amount of damage and sometimes the first indication you get is the ominous dark stain on the ceiling. If it happens while you're away for a few weeks, your ceiling can be on the floor when you get backThere are plenty of out of the way places for water leaks to go undetected and a few of these dotted around can save you a fortune in repair bills. Sometimes water damage can be worse than fire.For sensors, I add some compressed foam, the sort you get as soldering iron replacement pads as they swell up when wet. The probes can sit on the foam, weighted down. If it's something like a rough concrete floor, the foam will take up any unevenness and just a small part needs to get damp to sense.You could extend it to turn off the water with a solenoid valve on the main incomer, but if you have a tank in the loft, this could still do a lot of damage.

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  • pgs070947 commented on sfrwmaker's instructable Water Meter Automation3 months ago
    Water Meter Automation

    You are lucky to have a meter with some sort of pulse output. A bit of a rarity in the UK unless you install one of your own as a secondary meter.I've done just the same as you, but had to resort to fitting a Hall sensor to pick up the little magnet that usually is fitted on the last dial.I think it's a sensible thing to do and I've got all mine connected up (gas, water, electricity). I used XBees as they are very easy to network and Digi's software to set up is the best I've seen.Far better to get the readings onto a PC than grovel around in a 3-feet deep mud filled hole in the pavement.For what it's worth, all UK meters have to be at least 3-feet deep to protect from frost and I don't think metal covers affect the range too much. You can always use a local radio link using 433-MHz to...

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    You are lucky to have a meter with some sort of pulse output. A bit of a rarity in the UK unless you install one of your own as a secondary meter.I've done just the same as you, but had to resort to fitting a Hall sensor to pick up the little magnet that usually is fitted on the last dial.I think it's a sensible thing to do and I've got all mine connected up (gas, water, electricity). I used XBees as they are very easy to network and Digi's software to set up is the best I've seen.Far better to get the readings onto a PC than grovel around in a 3-feet deep mud filled hole in the pavement.For what it's worth, all UK meters have to be at least 3-feet deep to protect from frost and I don't think metal covers affect the range too much. You can always use a local radio link using 433-MHz to get it out of the ground then onto your 2.4-GHz network.One of the real benefits is being able to see if anything weird is going on like gas or water leaks. And I've heard tales of new "smart" meters being installed where the dials go round but no electronic readout or vice versa.

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  • Makin' Bacon - a Guide to Cold Smoking Bacon

    One rinse or soak might reduce the nitrates by say 75%. A second rinse will reduce the remaining 25% by another 75% - this is called serial dilution - a bit like homeopathy. On the plus side, sodium nitrate, indeed all nitrates and all sodium salts are soluble so will dissolve out.Looking at the Chorizo packet I see the preservative is not sodium nitrate, but sodium nitrite which is chemically much more reactive. Nitrates do not react much at all, but nitrites will react with stomach acid to produce nitrous acid, bacterial action then goes on to potentially produce things like nitrosamines.What I would suggest is a sodium chloride (table salt) as the moisture remover, and small amount of sodium nitrite as the perseverative. This would reduce the overwhelming nitrate content. At least th...

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    One rinse or soak might reduce the nitrates by say 75%. A second rinse will reduce the remaining 25% by another 75% - this is called serial dilution - a bit like homeopathy. On the plus side, sodium nitrate, indeed all nitrates and all sodium salts are soluble so will dissolve out.Looking at the Chorizo packet I see the preservative is not sodium nitrate, but sodium nitrite which is chemically much more reactive. Nitrates do not react much at all, but nitrites will react with stomach acid to produce nitrous acid, bacterial action then goes on to potentially produce things like nitrosamines.What I would suggest is a sodium chloride (table salt) as the moisture remover, and small amount of sodium nitrite as the perseverative. This would reduce the overwhelming nitrate content. At least then you would not run the nitrate risk and only have to assess the sodium risk. If I had to place a bet, I would chance the sodium way ahead of the nitrate risk.You take this advice at your own risk, but in general terms, I would avoid sodium nitrate. I certainly would not want to consume bacon cured with it.As for smoking (bacon), that's another issue, but all these methods were in place years ago, like smoked fish (kippers) and salted cod. But that was in a time when food had to last throughout winter and a long time before fridges and freezers.

    Just an bit more information from an area that I had quite a lot of experience in.Nitrates and nitrites are just a couple of items in a long list of items like pesticides and heavy metals that are monitored regularly in drinking water as part of the EU directive on drinking water quality.Both have limits for drinking water at the parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per litre level and nitrate levels were a concern back in the 70's.The main concern was the potential carcinoma evidence, plus the known "blue baby" syndrome, where nitrates and nitrites affect the red blood cells.Sodium nitrate and possibly nitrite have been used in products like Spam (spiced ham) etc. for years.The water companies have an obligation to reduce harmful materials in water, both chemical and bacteri...

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    Just an bit more information from an area that I had quite a lot of experience in.Nitrates and nitrites are just a couple of items in a long list of items like pesticides and heavy metals that are monitored regularly in drinking water as part of the EU directive on drinking water quality.Both have limits for drinking water at the parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per litre level and nitrate levels were a concern back in the 70's.The main concern was the potential carcinoma evidence, plus the known "blue baby" syndrome, where nitrates and nitrites affect the red blood cells.Sodium nitrate and possibly nitrite have been used in products like Spam (spiced ham) etc. for years.The water companies have an obligation to reduce harmful materials in water, both chemical and bacteriological, but the rules for foodstuffs might be different. There is pressure for consumers to limit their intake of so-called processed meats.Like all things, it's moderation that counts and I still like Chorizo. It's a risk choice like smoking.All I could advise is to look at salt (sodium chloride) as an alternative, but the key bit would be to rinse with tap water, not once, but several times .Methods that used to be acceptacble change as evidence stacks up.It's not so long ago that mercury salts, BHC and DDT pesticides were in regular use in gardens.

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  • Makin' Bacon - a Guide to Cold Smoking Bacon

    This worries me.When I see sodium and nitrate in the same breath, I think of the health implications.Yes, I know Sodium Nitrate is used commercially in pork products, but sodium is implicated in hypertension and nitrates in stomach cancers - nitrates, nitrites, nitrosamines - it's something to avoid.I know you say you rinse it, but that would not convince me. Your heart is in the right place, but adding these known risk agents is not good practice.If the purpose is to take moisture out of the raw meat, there must be better ways.It's a long time since I consumed chemically cured bacon, or salmon etc.

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  • pgs070947 commented on lingib's instructable CoreXY CNC Plotter4 months ago
    CoreXY CNC Plotter

    I'll second all the praise.A lot of effort has to go into the planning, doing and the presentation.Just looking for some spare time to have a crack at something like this

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  • pgs070947 commented on CrtSuznik's instructable Attiny Programmer (using Arduino UNO)4 months ago
    Attiny Programmer (using Arduino UNO)

    Have a look at Hightech Lowtech (MIT tutorial) for some basic stuff nicely explained and also Nick Gammon's site (gammon.au) where he goes into some depth on Atmel programming and some useful articles on sleeping and pinchange interrupts using the ATtiny85.When you order some, be aware of the two versions in DIP-8 packages. One has a wider supply range and the other operates up to 20-MHz.A useful little chip for timing projects and a lot more versatile than messing about with CMOS timers etc.

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  • pgs070947 commented on medzik's instructable Compact Regulated PSU - Power Supply Unit4 months ago
    Compact Regulated PSU - Power Supply Unit

    Still can't see the 3300uF cap.Important things like values need to be on the schematic or in the bill of materials.Not trying to be critical, but anything involving 230-V AC and extraneous metal (enclosure) needs to have a firm earth. I'm just worried that someone might copy as is and then gets a jolt. I appreciate that if you are using the original ATX enclosure, it will have a three pin IEC connector, but you need to stress that this earth is solidly connected to the case and ideally to the removable lid as well. A solid earth is the most important part of any equipment like this.

    You've lost me a bit on this.Why do you need the complication of two power inputs?I think I might have added a beefier capacitor on the input side to help smoothing. Check the voltage regulators data sheet to see if you need bypass caps on the ins and outs. It's good practice to have say, a 10uF and 0.1uF on both sides of the regulator for stability. Can't see any earthing either. Metal enclosures and 240-V AC needs care. Unless it's double insulated (Class 2?) it should have an earth on it.Otherwise, good use of the ATX enclosure

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  • Building a Reclaimed Wood Door From Scratch (Mission Style)

    Surprising just how much the stability of a door with panel construction relies on the tightness of the panels.I have seen several doors drop on the lock side just from the weight of the timber that pulls the joints apart. Agree about wooden panels expanding. I don't think I would want a heavy external door of panel construction, unless there was a tight-fitting glass panel as well.On the construction side, avoid large mortice locks in the joints and having made some doors myself with a portable router only, double strings of biscuits (6 per joint) work well.

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  • Fix Broken Plastic! Never Throw It Away Any More!

    As you probably know, some plastics are more difficult than others to repair. The thermoplastics like PE and PP won't stick (though Loctite do an expensive olefin primer that alledgedly works with PTFE as well), but they weld well if you get the temperature right.A quick fix in emergencies is to get a strip of PE or PP, set light to it, and let it drip onto the crack. - not guaranteed to work, but might stem the flow if its a tank.I had a large PP outdoors water tank that developed a leak at the bottom. It was going to be expensive to repair. I tried welding but the water pressure found the holes and welding on the inside was impossible.The final repair wasn't pretty but it woprks. I used Geocel/Dow Corning "The Works". It is a silicone-like adhesive that will cure under water...

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    As you probably know, some plastics are more difficult than others to repair. The thermoplastics like PE and PP won't stick (though Loctite do an expensive olefin primer that alledgedly works with PTFE as well), but they weld well if you get the temperature right.A quick fix in emergencies is to get a strip of PE or PP, set light to it, and let it drip onto the crack. - not guaranteed to work, but might stem the flow if its a tank.I had a large PP outdoors water tank that developed a leak at the bottom. It was going to be expensive to repair. I tried welding but the water pressure found the holes and welding on the inside was impossible.The final repair wasn't pretty but it woprks. I used Geocel/Dow Corning "The Works". It is a silicone-like adhesive that will cure under water. It is also very sticky. I spatula'd the adhesive over the crack then worked in some car body repair coarse glass fibre. Then another layer of adhesive, plus fibre and finally a top coat. Despite the pressure from the full water, it has held for over a year and at least £500 saved for an outlay of less than £10

    Steady on plasteek.PVC is one of the most useful of all the plastics. The clue is in the name. Poly Vinyl Chloride. Yes, it has a lot of chlorine, so don't burn it. Hydrogen Chloride is the end result and a lot of carbon.It is one of the most versatile engineering plastics, easy to engineer, long lasting if used wisely. Widely used in construction materials, windows, doors, pipelines, domestic plumbing etc. Life as we know it now would be difficult without PVC. Much medical equipment like disposable tubing systems are PVC. Almost all consumer electrical wiring cables are PVC insulated.If you weld it, which I have, temperature control is the key parameter. If you are getting any fumes, you are over-heating. A proper weld with a heat gun like a Leister is a safe, fume-free operation.PVC i...

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    Steady on plasteek.PVC is one of the most useful of all the plastics. The clue is in the name. Poly Vinyl Chloride. Yes, it has a lot of chlorine, so don't burn it. Hydrogen Chloride is the end result and a lot of carbon.It is one of the most versatile engineering plastics, easy to engineer, long lasting if used wisely. Widely used in construction materials, windows, doors, pipelines, domestic plumbing etc. Life as we know it now would be difficult without PVC. Much medical equipment like disposable tubing systems are PVC. Almost all consumer electrical wiring cables are PVC insulated.If you weld it, which I have, temperature control is the key parameter. If you are getting any fumes, you are over-heating. A proper weld with a heat gun like a Leister is a safe, fume-free operation.PVC is also a very accommodating plastic when it comes to gluing. Super Glues, epoxies, solvent welding are all good techniques.At the end of the day, it's up to you to make sure you are doing the job correctly, risk assess before you start and so on.

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  • pgs070947 commented on mikeasaurus's instructable Unusual Uses for WD-404 months ago
    Unusual Uses for WD-40

    If I had just one solvent/protective spray to use, it would be WD40.Professionally, I tried all the "look-alikes", but WD40 beat the lot.One of it's great advantages is that it won't attack/soften plastics like some of the others.Someone might have already mentioned it, but WD40 reputadley got it's name from Water Dispersant formula number 40.The only other use I could add to your list is water-proofing and cleaning leather shoes like safety shoes. I've also occasionaly used it to water-proof brick walls and timber.I buy the stuff by the 5-litre drum and use a cheap sprayer (old cleaning spray etc. ) as this is the cheapest way. You get a free sprayer with every 5-litres, but the new ones are rubbish.Great stuff and a great aftershave

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  • pgs070947 commented on scoochmaroo's instructable 15 Unusual Uses for Cheap Vodka4 months ago
    15 Unusual Uses for Cheap Vodka

    No. It isn't half the proof figure.Proof spirit was originally tested by pouring a small amount of the suspect liquid onto a small pile of gunpowder. If you could ignite the gunpowder, then the liquid had passed "proof" i.e. too much water, then the powder wouldn't ignite (it would eventually as the gunpowder dried out) - so 100% proof met that standard.Off the top of my head, 70% proof vodka is near enough 40% ABV - Alcohol By Volume). I must admit I didn't do all the sums. So 100% ABV would be 100x70/40 proof or thereabouts.Proof was used before more scientific methods like gas liquid chromatography came along.The UK proof figures are all I'm familiar with, but other countries might use different systems. People understand proof, but ABV is harder for many.Going back to the ...

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    No. It isn't half the proof figure.Proof spirit was originally tested by pouring a small amount of the suspect liquid onto a small pile of gunpowder. If you could ignite the gunpowder, then the liquid had passed "proof" i.e. too much water, then the powder wouldn't ignite (it would eventually as the gunpowder dried out) - so 100% proof met that standard.Off the top of my head, 70% proof vodka is near enough 40% ABV - Alcohol By Volume). I must admit I didn't do all the sums. So 100% ABV would be 100x70/40 proof or thereabouts.Proof was used before more scientific methods like gas liquid chromatography came along.The UK proof figures are all I'm familiar with, but other countries might use different systems. People understand proof, but ABV is harder for many.Going back to the misuse of chemicals, there is another (today) reported acid attack in UK. Acid is becoming the weapon of choice. Soon, all the useful household or building chemicals will be outlawed, spoiling it for the legitimate users (descaling pipework, cleaning off mortar residues) to stop a small minority. Local authorities and the EU have a field day banning things like effective pesticides.When I pour A voddie tonight, I'll have a look at the label

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  • pgs070947 commented on scoochmaroo's instructable 15 Unusual Uses for Cheap Vodka4 months ago
    15 Unusual Uses for Cheap Vodka

    As the use of what used to be common household chemicals become harder to obtain legitimately (won't name them) thanks to terrorist activity (Hydrochloric acid named in the press, left on a UK motorway recently), then you have to turn to other sources.The price of meths and especially industrial meths with duty added is nudging towards the price of basic vodka, then vodka might be your cleaner of choice.I have a bottle of absolute alcohol here (99.9% ethanol or 175 degrees proof) which only ever gets used for skin cleaning prior to blood glucose finger pricking.

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  • pgs070947 commented on DiyCoolStuff's instructable Restoring an Old Wrench4 months ago
    Restoring an Old Wrench

    Absolutely agree. I have a collection of my father's joinery tools, including some lovely cast steel chisels with box handles and all brass fittings. They are a pleasure to use (hard to sharpen) and should never end up in the bin. I will never wear them out, so you are just the custodian.Rusty tools say a lot about the care they have had. They still work, but I doubt that it would go down well in an engineering shop. It takes seconds to wipe over with WD40 or Waxoyl, but takes a lot longer to restore.If I have to get rust off, it's usually phosphoric acid and as mentioned before, Scotchbrite (3M) non-woven abrasive pads. No place for sandpaper.Good tools are still available from new and for adjustable wrenches, I rate Bacho tools. Britool, Elora and Bedford still do high quality spanner...

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    Absolutely agree. I have a collection of my father's joinery tools, including some lovely cast steel chisels with box handles and all brass fittings. They are a pleasure to use (hard to sharpen) and should never end up in the bin. I will never wear them out, so you are just the custodian.Rusty tools say a lot about the care they have had. They still work, but I doubt that it would go down well in an engineering shop. It takes seconds to wipe over with WD40 or Waxoyl, but takes a lot longer to restore.If I have to get rust off, it's usually phosphoric acid and as mentioned before, Scotchbrite (3M) non-woven abrasive pads. No place for sandpaper.Good tools are still available from new and for adjustable wrenches, I rate Bacho tools. Britool, Elora and Bedford still do high quality spanners and sockets.

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  • pgs070947 commented on SpecificLove's instructable DIY Water Misting System5 months ago
    DIY Water Misting System

    Where I live in a water stressed area, the water company would take a dim view of using what I presume is potable water for keeping cool.Using drinking water for non-essential uses like sprinkling lawns etc. would immediately attract the compulsory fttting of a water meter.If it's so hot where you are, there must be water shortages, so waste it like that?

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  • Cheap Scalable Arduino CNC (Plotter, Mill, 3D Printer...)

    Regardless of the authorship etc., it's stillnice to see a well presented project like this which brings attention to all the others who contributed.I probably wouldn't have seen it otherwise. It's a great bit of engineering and inspiration whatever.

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  • pgs070947 commented on a-morpheus's instructable Undead Pan5 months ago
    Undead Pan

    Only if you don't rinse or neutralise. Caustic soda is an effective way to restore steel or cast iron cookware from really baked on residues. As sodium hydroxide is totally water soluble, it will wash out easily if pores exist. Failing that, just stew up some rhubarb for the first meal.

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  • pgs070947 commented on karlli's instructable Ultrasound Tank Level Meter5 months ago
    Ultrasound Tank Level Meter

    Yours is a tricky one given the medium. If you can get a look at textbook Practical Arduino, it gives details of a project using a pressure sensor. One of the main problems is diffusion in or out of the connecting tubing pipework. Given that yours sounds like a commercial set-up, you could look at stainless or copper tubing. The thing that would worry me is the effect of oil vapours, and not least, any flammability issues. If you kept the measuring stuff outside the tanks, you could mitigate that. A well engineered dip tube from the top for pressure might work or there is the tried and tested float and pulley method.

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  • Arduino & Android Based Bluetooth Control Password Protected Door Lock (Version 2)

    A lot of effort gone into this.I've long thought that if cars can have central locking, why not houses?I like the rack bolt and I wonder if for a beefier version you could use a commercial mortice rack bolt.I haven't read all of it, but do you get feedback to confirm that the bolt has gone over?. Some special facility rooms like sterile rooms with UV lamps used to have a microswitch in the frame side to confirm that the bolt had actually gone over.

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  • pgs070947 commented on karlli's instructable Ultrasound Tank Level Meter5 months ago
    Ultrasound Tank Level Meter

    Bluetooth doesn't have a great range.You have a choice of AM/FM radios (depending on country) operating on 433 or 868 MHz if you wanted to go wireless. 433 has the greatest penetration.I quite like ZigBee (Digi XBee for example) which are relatively easy to set up and can cope with analogue and digital inputs.Six might be too many for analogue, digital no problem. You might be able to poll each tank.Oil is a messy medium for any contact method. Do you have sight glasses?Domestic oil tanks have remote contents devices, but I don't know what the transmission medium is.One slight concern might be the effect of volatiles from the oil.

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  • pgs070947 commented on Donald Bell's instructable Make Beautiful Solder Joints5 months ago
    Make Beautiful Solder Joints

    Acetone. A bit risky in my opinion. Too aggressive, too flammable, too much unpleasant vapour.Might be useful in a few circumstances, but not for routine use.The other problem is availability. UK hardware stores won't keep it, a specialist like a finishing supplier might do it, but as now you almost need a licence to buy solvent based glues, it might be better to stick to IPA.

    Familiar with clenching nails, i.e. turning over, usually on the backside, but not heard of it for wiring.I'm probably already using it, but hadn't named it. A classic use is when attaching flying leads to a board. A flying lead, just through the hole with no support is soon going to come adrift and start to rotate and lead to some funny results.With flying leads, I push some excess stripped lead through the hole, trim it to leave a few millimetres sticking out. Turn it over 90-degrees and solder.Result is a much stronger, non-rotating flying lead.Just as an add-on, a good flux is key. Never rely on the cored flux alone, but now exclusively use a syringe of Chip Quik. Gooey, but good.

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  • pgs070947 commented on Joebarteam's instructable Computer Control Box5 months ago
  • pgs070947 commented on Tiobel's instructable GPS Speedometer5 months ago
    GPS Speedometer

    I like this and the use of the OLED display which I want to experiment with soon.I'm quite keen on using GPS to get an accurate time signal, rather than rely on MSF etc., which can be temperamental.

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  • pgs070947 commented on karlli's instructable Ultrasound Tank Level Meter5 months ago
    Ultrasound Tank Level Meter

    I used to use a lot of ultrasonic sensors in the waste water business - the nature of the medium meant that non-contact was the preferred method.Long-term ultrasonics are generally weather-proof and being designed for industrial set-ups, but have a hefty price tag.I used cheaper non-waterproof sensors, but weather-proofed them myself using PVC pipework as a shield which was fine as the sensors always pointed down.The biggest problem was unexpected - spiders loved them, maybe there was a little warmth there, but a thick web soon caused problems. I could have devised a method to evict them, but that would be mean, so regular cleaning was appropriate.I didn't find any problems with sidewall reflections, in fact the pipe seemed to concentrate the beam and extend the range. Nor was the dampn...

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    I used to use a lot of ultrasonic sensors in the waste water business - the nature of the medium meant that non-contact was the preferred method.Long-term ultrasonics are generally weather-proof and being designed for industrial set-ups, but have a hefty price tag.I used cheaper non-waterproof sensors, but weather-proofed them myself using PVC pipework as a shield which was fine as the sensors always pointed down.The biggest problem was unexpected - spiders loved them, maybe there was a little warmth there, but a thick web soon caused problems. I could have devised a method to evict them, but that would be mean, so regular cleaning was appropriate.I didn't find any problems with sidewall reflections, in fact the pipe seemed to concentrate the beam and extend the range. Nor was the dampness a problem, just avoid direct wetting.Nice, useful project.

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  • pgs070947 commented on WoodWorkLIFE's instructable Epic Wooden PC Case5 months ago
    Epic Wooden PC Case

    I have just put a PC together the conventional way.Despite going for the smallest form steel case (for ATX micro motherboard), there is still loads of wasted space and it's plain ugly. It's a case of form before function.Next time, I plan to split the whole thing into modules and concentrate on the bits of interest which are the inputs/outputs, maybe a DVD drive. The rest of it can go somewhere else. The nearest you get to function over form is 19" racking.Maybe it's just me, but most of the stuff I want to get at is inconveniently on the backside, and the spaghetti of leads just takes up more space. there has to be a better way. And before you say laptop, give me a proper keyboard/mouse and decent sized monitor any day.As for shielding, most of the bad stuff in my experience comes...

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    I have just put a PC together the conventional way.Despite going for the smallest form steel case (for ATX micro motherboard), there is still loads of wasted space and it's plain ugly. It's a case of form before function.Next time, I plan to split the whole thing into modules and concentrate on the bits of interest which are the inputs/outputs, maybe a DVD drive. The rest of it can go somewhere else. The nearest you get to function over form is 19" racking.Maybe it's just me, but most of the stuff I want to get at is inconveniently on the backside, and the spaghetti of leads just takes up more space. there has to be a better way. And before you say laptop, give me a proper keyboard/mouse and decent sized monitor any day.As for shielding, most of the bad stuff in my experience comes in files down router cables. Wherever possible I avoid wireless and stick to hardwired LANs and network switches/firewalls. The only time you win with a wireless laptop is during power cuts or local lightning storms

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  • pgs070947 commented on Elias Stratakos's instructable Custom Wall Tool Holders 5 months ago
    Custom Wall Tool Holders

    It ain't just tools - money, credit cards, glasses, keys.it's like one of these horror stories why all the toys come to life at night or when the house is empty.How many duplicate small tools do I have because I went out and bought another one.I'm sure one of the problems is that if you've spent the day doing a job, the last thing between you and putting your feet up is putting the damned tools away.I've tried everything - yes my garage/tool repository has all the Raaco stuff, all the custom shelves and cut-outs, even all in a tool-location database. Lasts about 5-minutes. The nightmare of doing a kitchen say - every trade tool going. Sometimes I allocate buckets - I've even put yellow tape on the floor "this is the tool area". The air is blue quite often.

    Some folk talk about the work/life balance. My problem is the work/find tool balance. Why is it that getting tools out for a job is so much easier than putting them back in the right place? I can't decide if your project is a work of art or the art of work. I think the only time I could ever get as neat and tidy as you, is when I stop working and that ain't any time soon.What helps is a dedicated workshop, but if most of the jobs are away from the tool "house", that where the problems start, especially if a van is involved.Good tools are a good investment and need proper care and storage.Then I wouldn't spend half the day looking for that special offset Pozi #2 screwdriver.

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  • Arduino Controlled Greenhouse (With Blynk As Interface)

    I like this and a lot of work has gone into it.If anyone has a greenhouse, they will know it's like having a pet. You can't leave it alone for a day without some disaster happening - too hot, too dry etc.Automating is the way to go and obviously for commercial growers, it is the only way. It's what microcontrollers were made for.I hope you do get around to publishing the code etc., especially on instructables.

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  • pgs070947 commented on Nickolae's instructable White Oak Faced Powerful Passive Speakers5 months ago
    White Oak Faced Powerful Passive Speakers

    Well done, lots of skills here.Just a suggestion, instead of varnish, try Osmo Polyx. Gives a lovely finish, water resistant etc. Expensive, but I wouldn't use anything else now.

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  • pgs070947 commented on djpolymath's instructable Center Finder Jig6 months ago
    Center Finder Jig

    Another one?The old tricks are usually the best, but full marks for trying. I don't know who invented the first one, but Pythagoras might have had a hand in it.If you need to leave the screws in, why not countersink and leave them flush? Just being picky, but something to snag on.

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  • pgs070947 commented on mikeasaurus's instructable Unusual Uses Ziploc Bags6 months ago
    Unusual Uses Ziploc Bags

    Amazon.I use a lot of them

    Another one along the paintbrush theme.Getting adhesive labels off small containers like TicTac - put some paper towel in the bag, wet it with white spirit, put the containers in, leave for a day and the labels will fall off. Try other solvents like methylated spriris if the white spirit doesn't workIron-on edging tape - I don't like the heat sensitive adhesive they use, so like the TicTac containers, put the tape in the bag overnight and the adhesive strip falls again - then use a contact adhesive of your choice.

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  • pgs070947 commented on emily0's instructable Acid-Etched Glass6 months ago
    Acid-Etched Glass

    Not many chemicals will etch or dissolve glass.The only one I'm aware of is Hydrofluoric Acid. This is a fearsome acid.Years ago, chemists were encouraged to go to the local dentist and ask for some teeth. These were stewed up with concentrated sulphuric acid to give off HF fumes. A sheet of glass with a pattern drawn into wax was placed over the fuming acid to etch the glass.If what you are working with here is HF acid, then beware. Sulphuric, Oleum, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Aqua Regia are all dangerous acids, but the one I fear the most is Hydrofluoric. It causes long-term ulceration and is particularly dangerous if it gets under finger-nails.I wouldn't touch this with a bargepole, literally.In the lab I worked in handling HF, the first aid kit carried a vial of Calcium Gluconate for inj...

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    Not many chemicals will etch or dissolve glass.The only one I'm aware of is Hydrofluoric Acid. This is a fearsome acid.Years ago, chemists were encouraged to go to the local dentist and ask for some teeth. These were stewed up with concentrated sulphuric acid to give off HF fumes. A sheet of glass with a pattern drawn into wax was placed over the fuming acid to etch the glass.If what you are working with here is HF acid, then beware. Sulphuric, Oleum, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Aqua Regia are all dangerous acids, but the one I fear the most is Hydrofluoric. It causes long-term ulceration and is particularly dangerous if it gets under finger-nails.I wouldn't touch this with a bargepole, literally.In the lab I worked in handling HF, the first aid kit carried a vial of Calcium Gluconate for injection which was the treatment of choice at the time. The only other first aid item used at this level was amyl nitrite for cyanide poisoning.I may be wrong, and there may be safer methods to etch glass than HF, but until you are certain what you are working with, I would tread warily.

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  • pgs070947 commented on makjosher's instructable How to Solder Copper Pipe6 months ago
    How to Solder Copper Pipe

    oky jimI think you've made the MAPP point before.What confuses the issue is the fact that some retailers refer to MAPP in the same breath as MAP(P) Pro or MAP(P) Plus.MAPP is a registered trademark and the gas contained Propadiene. Production of MAPP in the US at least stopped in 2010 according to Wiki.The Propene in MAP still makes it a hotter gas than Propane and if it "only" a couple of hundred degrees hotter, that's good enough for me. It gets the job done quicker and more reliably in my humble opinion.Fortunately, I still have stock of MAPP and having just compared MAPP and MAP Plus in a Rothenburger torch, there is very little difference in performance. True, nothing comes close to Acetylene (triple bond), but Propene (double bond) still outperforms single bonded Butane...

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    oky jimI think you've made the MAPP point before.What confuses the issue is the fact that some retailers refer to MAPP in the same breath as MAP(P) Pro or MAP(P) Plus.MAPP is a registered trademark and the gas contained Propadiene. Production of MAPP in the US at least stopped in 2010 according to Wiki.The Propene in MAP still makes it a hotter gas than Propane and if it "only" a couple of hundred degrees hotter, that's good enough for me. It gets the job done quicker and more reliably in my humble opinion.Fortunately, I still have stock of MAPP and having just compared MAPP and MAP Plus in a Rothenburger torch, there is very little difference in performance. True, nothing comes close to Acetylene (triple bond), but Propene (double bond) still outperforms single bonded Butane or Propane.Going back a few years, I had to have a 300-bar pipeline installed. This is a different kettle of fish to domestic plumbing. All the pipework is heavy wall as are the fittings. Only brazed or compression fittings were allowed. Yorkshire were the preferred brazed fittings and Swagelok the preferred compression fittings. As one of the gases was hydrogen, all the joints had to be just right. No soapy water on these, but only expensive electronic testing at the molecule level sufficed. Seeing a gauge wind round to over 4000-psi gets your attention.

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