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Making Wooden Knobs on a Drill Press
I'd be very surprised if splits in lumber, as shown by Scotttland, could be closed up by clamping. Wood glue is not a filler...so if one cannot get excellent contact between surfaces, then wood glue is NOT called for. Epoxy is typically called upon for filling gaps and adding strength. I agree that polyester resin is a filler that is not likely to be a form of strengthening, however, I don't know where you saw the requirement for strengthening in the wood used in this Instructable. I took it for granted Scotttland was going to carve it or otherwise use it artistically.
I am not familiar with the red or pinkish tint of set resin that you speak of. Perhaps that is a "feature" of a certain brand. To my knowledge, the typical set resin is clear or nearly clear. I would expect that whatever brand you consider buying, the color of the set resin will be disclosed somewhere in the description or the technical specifications.
If you intend to "restore this wood ladder" in order to continue using this as a ladder, then I'd say there is no way to repair the wood to reliably restore the strength required to say the ladder is safe. If you merely want to use the ladder as a decoration or part of an artistic composition, then the resin used above or an epoxy could be employed.
Many or most table saw sleds have fences that are not reinforced. While it couldn't hurt, experience shows it isn't necessary. (Probably a factor of how thick they are and/or how tall the fences are...relative to the highest cut the blade can make. Maybe the fences used here should have been taller or thicker...which is the same as reinforcing the fence :)
How To: Six Point Paper Snowflake
Easy to build infinity mirror.
Temperature-Sensitive Infinity Mirror